عنوان مقاله [English]
At the beginning of the human communities’ formation and in the early societies, clothing has had a protective role to keep human body safe from the natural factors. Later, with the development of social and cultural activities in societies and formation of religious beliefs, clothing and type of color, texture, form and style of dressing, gained a cultural role and their social, cultural and symbolic function became highlighted. What is important about the garment of a social group, tribe or a society is, first, the cultural patterns according to which people choose the material, size, color, shape and style of sewing. The other is the function and role which some clothing play in various social, cultural, occupational, ritual and religious circumstances. In the tribal communities whose people follow the same patterns in social, cultural and religious behaviors and are bound to follow the usual norms of the same traditional wearing, there is no variation in the economic and the material structure, as well as plurality, diversity and enthusiasm in their occupations and clothing. So, all are influenced by the common cultural patterns among the people of those societies which are adapted with the norms and criteria of their native culture. The issue of traditional clothing, like the other cultural and artistic aspects of Iran, is an undeniable point in the anthropologic topics, as well as, in the familiarity with the language and the identity of the inhabitants of the various regions of this land. Studying the various artistic aspects of each of the traditional clothing of these regions’ indigenous people one might open a window for discovering their unknown cultural and artistic identity. According to anthropological studies carried out by researchers, various types of women’s head cover in the province of Ilam have been introduced. For example, based on these studies, types of women’s head covers of Ilam are: Araqchen, Klaw, Golvani (Golwani), Kat, Lacheg, Sarvan, Habar, Kasaari, Black Veil, Aba, Qatrah, Taqari, Sawah Siah, Scarf (Maqena), Sheleh (which is special for Arab women of Mousyan) and Baan Sarvan (Mohammadi Seif, 1395: 171). Hence, Golvani, which is one the main traditional clothing in Ilam and Lorestan, has been selected for conducting this purposeful study. The main goal of this research is to introduce, describe and analyze the method of production, decorative motifs and cultural background of this type of head cover, regarding its current widespread usage in various cultural and artistic events. The main research questions are: 1. what are the decorative patterns used in design of Golvani? 2. How explainable are the conformity among the decorative patterns used in Golvani in Ilam and Lorestan? The findings of the study indicate that the decorative motifs of Golvani are a combination of the natural and abstract motifs and everyday instruments used by women. The main reason for the similarity of these motifs in Lorestan and Ilam is the tribal life of people living in these areas. This research has been done descriptively, analytically and based on field and library studies.