عنوان مقاله [English]
Women’s clothing during the Qajar era was frequently cited in historiographical sources, such as the travelogues of foreign tourists, and portrayed in paintings and photographs. This article addresses the following question: What are the main parts of women’s clothing in the Qajar court (From the era of Fath-Ali Shah to the end of the Naseri era and prior to the popularity of European clothes), and how are their qualitative characteristics compared? From the time of Fath-Ali Shah until the end of Naser al-Din Shah’s reign, this article examines the form, texture, color, design, and pattern of main and frequently worn parts of women’s clothing in the Qajar court, especially during the reign of Fath-Ali Shah. The objective of this developmental research and the analytical-historical study was attained by utilizing probability sampling and qualitatively reviewing documentary studies, text reading, and image reading. Results indicated that women’s clothing in the Qajar court mainly consisted of shirts, Arkhalig, and Kolija. All social classes wore shirts, but their fabrics varied, with silk fabrics being more acceptable at the court level. Arkhalig is a short gown worn over a shirt with short and long sleeves as well as sleeves with triangle/samosa lace; its later type with a more decorative appearance was known as Chigen. The economic status of the wearer determined which types of simple fabrics, Mahrams, and motifs (tartan) would be used in the sewing of arkhalig. During the reign of Naser al-Din Shah, the kolija grew in popularity, and although it was deemed more appropriate for the winter season, it was evidently worn throughout the year. This mantle is up to the middle of the thigh and typically has sleeves that reach the elbow. Kolija is very similar to the men’s kind; like the men’s kind, it was a special dress of the affluent. Plain and expensive fabrics such as velvet or motifs (tartan), particularly cashmere, were frequently used in sewing kolija.